Human activities are increasingly fragmenting intact habitats and reducing connectivity among protected areas. Concern about loss of biodiversity led to an international agreement in 2010 to meet 20 specific biodiversity targets. Among these, Target 5 deals with fragmentation, Target 11 with connectivity, and Target 17 with implementation of National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plans (NBSAPs). The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is working with 135 countries to implement NBSAPs. These plans require data on the status and trends in biodiversity and ecological condition that are globally consistent and adequately fine in resolution for national application. Accordingly, the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) is developing Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBV) and UNDP has initiated a geospatial portal to serve NSBAP implementation. We propose to develop a remote-sensing based decision support system (DSS) to enhance the UNDP geospatial portal, produce ecological vital signs in support of GEO BON, and provide tools to enable decision making on forest fragmentation and connectivity by CBD countries. Our goal is to develop credible and consistent global satellite-based products and analysis methods to inform connectivity implementation of forest integrity in NBSAPs. Objectives are: 1. Develop satellite-based products that are global in extent and regionally relevant for mapping forest condition, human pressure, and forest integrity, and assessing habitat fragmentation and connectivity. 2. Use the products to inform a connectivity DSS that includes tools for regional data summary, evaluation of condition and trend, and communication to stakeholders. 3. Incorporate the DSS into the UNDP geospatial portal and demonstrate it use by countries implementing NBSAPs for which connectivity is a high priority. The DSS will be developed as interconnected modules: 1) vital sign integration; 2) fragmentation and connectivity analyses; 3) species impacts analyses; 4) evaluation of trends in vital sign condition; and 5) spatial summary. The DSS will focus on one "high-level" vital sign, forest integrity, and be designed to incorporate GEO BON EBV as they become available. Advances in remote sensing now allow moderate resolution mapping of forest condition and human pressure globally. We will integrate forest canopy density, canopy height and time since disturbance (derived from Landsat analyses and GLAS data) with an updated human footprint (derived from DMSP-OLS, Modis, MERIS, SRTM, and ancillary data) into a measure of forest integrity. The extent of fragmentation of forests of high integrity, connectivity among protected areas, and change from 2000-2017 will be quantified. The contribution of forest integrity to explaining species extinction risk will be assessed with indepent data on vertebrate population status. Trends in the condition of vital signs will be quantified based on user-defined thresholds to reveal if vital signs are deteriorating, stable, or improving. Tools will be developed to allow users to extract and summarize all of the DSS products for any spatial area of interest. The UN Pulse Lab Kampala will host the DSS, incorporating it into their geospatial portal. We will prototype the DSS in 8 countries for which connectivity is a stated priority and implement the DSS in an additional 26 countries. UNDP will provide trainings and other forms of communication to reach up to 135 countries on the use of the data, and will monitor its use, gather best practices and share these widely, through a collaborative wiki portal. The project will substantially enhance the capacity of the UN Pulse Lab Kampala, and will enable collaborating countries to monitor progress on meeting their NBSAP forest fragmentation and connectivity targets.