The proposed work serves, in effect, to translate a multitude of satellite-based observations into real-time estimates and seasonal predictions of agricultural drought, using an existing NASA seasonal forecasting system that employs state-of-the-art Earth system models and data assimilation algorithms. The work involves several tasks: (a) the assessment of predictability and drought forecast skill in the existing GSFC system, using retrospective forecasts; (b) a repeat of the previous task for the new GSFC seasonal forecast system coming online, for skill comparison analysis and to keep the contributions to the DSS current; (c) an observational analysis designed to ensure the physical realism of the forecast system's products; (d) the provision of real-time drought estimates to the U.S. Drought Monitor; and (e) the provision of seasonal drought forecasts to the U.S. Drought Outlook. This proposal addresses the national priority areas of agricultural efficiency (through estimation and prediction of soil water content, critical to crop health), water management (through seasonal prediction of drought), and disaster management.